In the not-so-distant-past before computers became a household appliance, astrologers cast their charts by hand. It was unthinkable that a serious astrologer would be unable to perform this elementary task. Alas, thanks to technology, this skill is quickly disappearing, leading to an unfortunate ignorance of basic chart mechanics by the average astrologer. Certification helps address this problem. To pass the NCGR-PAA certification exams, the candidate must demonstrate the ability to calculate a chart for any date in the 1900’s for anyplace in the world, using only an ephemeris, table of houses, atlas or time change table and a calculator or slide rule. And that’s just for Level 1! Level 2 and 3 both require additional calculations. Having walked this path myself, I can assist you no matter where on that road you find yourself. I’ve shepherded quite a few people through these gates. The result is clearly spelled-out procedures for every required calculation, plenty of worked-through examples, sample tests for each level, and helpful handouts for specific areas.